As per usual in this kind of book he is dropping a lot of names and making very sweeping comments about their theories. Lefebre and Massey is denoted as post-modernists, Wittgenstein's theories about private language is proclaimed obviously right without any explanation of what that theory is and the idea that man owns himself is disregarded since we live after "Freud, Lacan and Derrida" what they actually had to say on the subject is of course beneath Nawratek to explain.
On occassionm although very rarely, Nawratek is generous enough to share a bit of empirical evidence with the readers. Like for example that most of the cities in "the west", "with very few exceptions such as London or Paris", is shrinking.
Interesting indeed! Where Nawratek really lost me was when he discusses public, and private, space in the beginning of the chapter "Public space doesn't exist and neither does private ". It is worth quoting at some length; "Maybe there is neither public nor private space any more. Maybe today this distinction is more useless than ever before; these days we deal with spatial hybrids. Without even touching the topic of new media and new ways of communication Let's be clear then - there is no public or private space any more. Since the boundary between two phenomena is a bit blurred the obvious conclusion is to proclaim the phenomena as non-existant?
And the example used to show this is a fringe social phenomena flash mobs? According to that kind of reasoning I guess we can stop drawing any kind of boundary between urinals and art since Duchamp made an art piece out of an urinal in ? Even Nawratek seem to agree his own reasoning is flawed or more straight forward, just plain wrong , since he a couple of chapters afterwards start to discuss public and private space again, seemingly unimpeded by his previous dismissal of the concepts.
I'm not saying I disagree with all of Nawrateks claims. It is just that his reasoning leave so much to be desired. It was so bad I started to suspect the book was another Sokal hoax check it on wikipedia if you haven't heard about it , but that doesn't seem to be the case. In any case I recommend you stay away from this book. For people interested in cities the book is simply to vague and sweeping and for people who want to transform the world I'll quote the last paragraph of the book which is a poetic condensation of Nawrateks idea how to change the world and then you can decide if it is worth picking up or not; "To start the revolution is to see the world differently.
Slightly incline your head, squint your eyes and see - it is all already there. Now, start believing in what you just saw. Chybaty rated it it was ok Jul 16, Michael Cutler rated it it was amazing Oct 26, Judyta rated it it was ok Nov 28, David rated it really liked it Dec 17, Rabarbara rated it liked it Apr 10, Wyraz rated it did not like it Oct 01, Nick rated it liked it Apr 24, Vorph rated it really liked it Feb 03, Joanna rated it liked it Jul 07, Agata rated it really liked it Aug 29, Sean rated it liked it Aug 21, Karolina rated it liked it Jun 04, The whole point of "Gs" in wireless standards, originally, was to emphasize the ease of transition between one wireless system of delivery and a newer one -- or at least make that transition seem reasonably pain-free.
Not that any transition has ever been a trip to the fair. Once complete, the 5G transition plan would constitute an overhaul of communications infrastructure unlike any other in history.
Imagine if, at the close of the 19th century, the telegraph industry had come together in a joint decision to implement a staged transition to fax. That's essentially the scale of the shift from 4G to 5G. The real reason for this shift is not so much to get faster as to make the wireless industry sustainable over the long term, as the 4G transmission scheme is approaching unsustainability faster than the industry experts predicted.
The revolution, like all others, will be subsidized. The initial costs of these 5G infrastructure improvements may be tremendous, and consumers have already demonstrated their intolerance for rate hikes. So to recover those costs, telcos will need to offer new classes of service to new customer segments, for which 5G has made provisions. Customers have to believe 5G wireless is capable of accomplishing feats that were impossible for 4G. To make the transition feasible in homes and businesses, telcos are looking to move customers into a 5G business track now, even before most true 5G services exist yet.
More to the point, they're laying the "foundations" for technology tracks that can more easily be upgraded to 5G, once those 5G services do become available. If you look at this whole thing about massive machine-type communications [mMTC], in the past it's been primarily the human either talking to a human or, when we have the internet, the human requesting services and experiences from software. Moving forward, we are going to have software as the requester, and that software is going to be talking to software.
So the whole dynamic of what services we're going to have to deliver through our networks, is going to change. If we're being honest now is always a good time to start , it's incorrect to say that 5G is the fifth generation of global wireless technology. Depending upon whom you ask, and the context of the question, there are really either four or seven generations, and only three sets of global standards. There was never really an official "1G.
The term "2G" is credited to Finnish engineers to characterize the technological leap forward that their GSM standard represented. It was with the advent of 3G that the world started counting at the same digit. But even for 4G, there were competing standards, and two major groups of practitioners -- one for WiMAX, the other for the victorious LTE -- vying for global supremacy. The 5G effort has, so far, been successful at keeping the engineers together around the same table, contributing towards a single set of goals. How 5G Will Transform Business.
Read More. When 4G networks were launched in , smartphones popularized video consumption, and data traffic on mobile networks really exploded. It's truly an inflection point from the consumer to the industry. Today, 3GPP specifies which technologies constitute 5G wireless and, by exclusion, which do not. The 5G wireless standard aims to be global -- which is the hard part, because each participating country e.
In November , the US Federal Communications Commission began an auction for exclusive segments of spectrum in the 28 GHz band, soon to be followed by bids in the 24 GHz band, for exclusive use by the winning bidders. The following month, the FCC unanimously approved a plan to make more spectrum in the 37 GHz, 39 GHz, and 47 GHz bands available for the highest-speed communications tier for 5G wireless, called millimeter-wave mmWave.
But a good part of the 5G plan involves multiple, simultaneous antennas, some of which utilize spectrum that telcos agree to share with one another for instance, the 3. Among the technologies inside the 5G umbrella are systems enabling transmitters and receivers to arbitrate access to unused channels in the unlicensed spectrum, much the way It's vitally important not to confuse gigahertz GHz, which refers to frequency with gigabits Gb, which are quantities of transmitted data. Data throughput speeds for 5G are, as with 4G, measured in gigabits per second Gbps.
Just because 5G networks will operate at higher frequencies does not make it faster. Those higher frequencies are chosen mainly because they've not been used by anything else yet. And this is where things will get very tricky down the road: Very high-frequency signals do not travel far at all, which is one reason why 5G cellular networks will be smaller, with more transmitters operating within denser cells.
The majority of these efforts are in one of three categories:. It was during the implementation of 4G that telcos realized they wished they had different grades of infrastructure to support different classes of service. By the end of , the organization expects to declare a supplemental set of 5G standards called "Release The true purpose of 5G wireless, as you'll see momentarily, is to produce a global business model where expenses are lower and revenue from services is higher, on account of the presence of more and greater services than 4G could provision for.
So there is a valid argument, from a marketing standpoint, in favor of a gradual deconstruction of 4G branding. As consumers hear more and more about the onset of 5G, enumeration leaves them feeling more and more like their 4G equipment is old and obsolete. With so many technologies under the 5G umbrella -- home broadband, office broadband, home television, internet of Things, in-vehicle communication, as well as mobile phone -- there's no guarantee that, when it comes time, any consumer will choose the same provider for each one unless that consumer is willing to sign a contract beforehand.
That's why telcos are stepping up their 5G branding efforts now, including rolling out preliminary 4G upgrades with 5G monikers, and re-introducing the whole idea of 5G to consumers as a fuzzy, cloudy, nebulous entity that encapsulates a sci-fi-like ideal of the future. From the beginning, we had the 1G, the 2G, the 3G, and the 4G. They were sort of leaps of differences, when it comes to speed and throughput.
The city is viewed as a giant Panopticon, albeit a very specific one. Smart Growth and Sustainable Development. They still try to create an image of themselves as an independent and meaningful force based on the mythical and objective common good. It can be said that interfaces rely on institutions, organisations and conventions. However, the ongoing economic crisis can thwart these plans. The Enneagram is an ancient personality type system with an uncanny accuracy in describing how human beings are wired, both positively and negatively.
When we think about 5G, we think about 10 gigabits per second throughput, we talk about 10x battery life, we think about times more data volumes in the networks. It's just radically different. This equation will be consistent with a singularity provided that the scaling exponent is negative.
This leads to a critical condition:. The two domains showing or lacking a singularity are separated by this curve. The white area includes all parameter combinations allowing a singularity to emerge through a hyperbolic growth process. The power law kernel introduces a long tail and thus long-memory effects.
Although links with old inventions are much rare, they can be established and thus a contribution will always be expected. The generation of new patents is now given by. By solving this equation we obtain an implicit form:. This equation can be numerically solved and the result shown in Fig 3a for a given set of parameters. We can appreciate from this diagram that there is a delayed growth phase at the beginning followed by an apparently linear growth in late stages.
In other words, the dynamics has no singularity.
Is that the case? Although solving the general problem can be extremely cumbersome, we can deal with some approximations that can be applied at different stages of the system. In a we display our predicted growth curve N t and two approximations considering short time dotted line and long term dashed line scales. The effective kernels for these two scales are displayed in the inset plots b and c. The characteristic scale of ageing imposed by the kernel implies that there is a time horizon beyond which no connections among inventions can be made.
In the present top large circle only new inventions filled circles occupying the outer part of the circle can connect among them whereas they cannot link light lines with those in the black hole open circles. Hence, neglecting the first and last terms on the LHS, we obtain the following approximate solution for the evolution of N at initial stages of technological evolution:.
The previous equation predicts a singularity at some time in the future although such singularity is in conflict with our approximation and the hyperbolic growth is only a transient phenomenon. In this case, we can rewrite eq 17 as:. Thus, from eq 20 it is straightforward to obtain the long-term solution for the dynamics of N :. Eq 21 reveals that N exhibits a linear growth dynamics when large values of t are considered.
Note that this long-term dynamics is notably different from the hyperbolic dynamics predicted for initial stages of evolution see the explanation above. In Fig 3 we show the agreement between these approximations and the exact solution obtained numerically. As we can see, the analytic results confirm that the initial hyperbolic trend dotted curve is eventually replaced by a slowdown characterised by a linear process dashed line with no technological singularity associated.
An intuitive explanation for the change from early hyperbolic to late linear dynamics is provided in the insets of Fig 3b and 3c. Here we show the kernel associated to early Fig 3b and late Fig 3c times, and thus smaller and larger numbers of innovations.
Thus, the effect of ageing or loss of memory dominates in the long term Fig 3a and 3c and the effective rate of innovation become linear. Such slowdown prevents the system from approaching a divergent dynamics. These results can be graphically interpreted as shown in Fig 3d. Here we use again the spindle diagram showing how the universe or space of innovations experiences an accelerated growth at early stages of development.
Our technological memory establishes the distance between these two boundaries in the innovations space, and this distance determines the number of up-to-date inventions, which in turn determines the expansion rate of the innovation space. The previous results can be generalised to the k -diversity scenario, where the new equation reads. The previous models provide a simple theoretical framework to study the dynamics of purely combinatorial innovations following a k -order kinetics.
In particular, we should consider one special case where both combination and novel innovations contribute to the growth of the technological universe. Here we present a simple, revealing example that deals with a bimodal recombination process. In previous sections we have described the pairwise recombination in which two different innovations are involved.
Let us here consider that an additional mode of recombination is present in the system.
This kind of recombination can be seen as a mutation of an existent patent e. Considering a bimodal recombination dynamics in which the two previous modes are added up, we have:. In contrast with the unimodal cases above, finding the analytical solution of the bimodal equation 27 can be cumbersome. However, this accelerated trend can be counterbalanced by the aging effects. Interestingly, Fig 4b reminds the behaviour observed in the number of patents see Fig 1 in Ref. This is of course a first approximation to the actual role played by codes versus patents, but it illustrates a potential mean field approach to these observations.
The nature and tempo of innovation is a difficult and timely topic. It has been the focus of attention from evolutionary biologists, economists and physicists alike. Inventors get inspiration from previous, existing designs, while they push forward the boundaries of invention. In searching for a theory of technological change, the combinatorial nature of technology seems to be an essential component of human creativity.
By combining previous designs into novel ones, there is a potential for an explosion of novelties, which could eventually move towards a singularity. How can we test such possibility? Patent files are a privileged window into such process, since they provide a first approximation to both the growth of inventions and their interactions over time. The accelerated pattern of patent growth suggests that a super linear process of innovation is taking place and available evidence indicates that this is at least partially associated to combinatorial processes [ 21 ].
In this paper we have explored a simple class of models that include both the richness of combinations and how rapidly the relevance of previous inventions fades with time. These two features can be seen as two opposing forces: the diversity of potential previous inventions to be combined powers combinatorial design, while the obsolescence of the same inventions makes them less likely to contribute to combinations.
Our goal was not as much as to fit data than understand the basic scenarios where singularities might emerge when both features are included. We have shown that long-memory kernels permit the presence of singularities under some conditions, while kernels involving a characteristic time scale of ageing forbid divergences to occur.
The first class predicts two different phases, which reminds us of a picture of innovation defining a phase transition between sub-critical and super-critical phases [ 33 ]. The second provides a plausible reason why singularities might fail to be observed, while the transient dynamics of innovation appears hyperbolic.
Further investigations should analyse other temporal trends including the patterns of fluctuations associated to these class of models and a more detailed analysis of available time series. Existing models of evolution of innovations [ 34 , 35 ] can provide very useful tests to the ideas outlined here. Other factors have not been considered here, such as the limited resources effectively available for developing new technologies. Nevertheless, our models suggests that some generic trends can be defined that pervade the ways in which innovation evolves.
We also thank the members of the CSL for many stimulating discussions. This paper is dedicated to the defenders of the last barricade before the Eglise Sant-Merri. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Jan Amor , 1, 2 and Sergi Valverde 1, 2. Daniel R. Alejandro Raul Hernandez Montoya, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Feb 16; Accepted Dec This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Abstract It has been suggested that innovations occur mainly by combination: the more inventions accumulate, the higher the probability that new inventions are obtained from previous designs.
Introduction Technology is one of the most obvious outcomes of human culture. Open in a separate window.